Two Lectures: “Exploring Greek Tragedy: ‘The Persians’ of Aeschylus” & “Cultural Exchange Between the Phrygians and Greek”

This week we get a little dirty… with the dust of long-crumbled empires.  Our first lecture pertains to the ideological (i.e. religious) and material exchange between the ancient Greeks and their neighbors to the East: the enigmatic Phrygians.  I talk about their capital city named Gordion, their culture, their religion and their impacts on the Greek (and consequently the Roman) worlds.

Bibliography

Berndt-Ersöz, Susanne. 1998. “Phrygian Rock-Cut Cult Façades: A Study of the Function of the So-Called Shaft Monuments.” Anatolian Studies 48: 87-112.

Bremmer, Jan. 2004. “Attis: A Greek God in Anatolian Pessinous and Catullan Rome.” Mnemosyne IV 57 (5), 2004: 534-573.

Cox, D. H. 1966. “Gordion Hoards III, IV, V, and VII,” American Numismatic Society, Museum es 12: 19-55.

Cook, J.M. 1962. The Greeks in Ionia & the East. London: Thames & Hudson.

Darbyshire, G., S. Mitchell, and L. Vardar. 2000. “The Galatian Settlement in Asia Minor,” Anatolian Studies 50: 75-97.

Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. 2000. “Phrygia, Gordion, and King Midas in the Late Eighth Century B.C.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/phry… (October 2004)

DeVries, Keith. 1990. “The Gordion Excavation Seasons of 1969-1973 and Subsequent Research.” American Jour-nal of Archaeology 94 (3): 371-406.

Emlyn-Jones, C.J. 1980. The Ionians & Hellenism. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Garstang, John. 1943 “Hittite Military Roads in Asia Minor: A Study in Imperial Strategy with a Map.” American Journal of Archaeology 47 (1): 35-62.

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaitė. The gods and goddesses of Old Europe: 7000 to 3500 BC myths, legends and cult images. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Henrickson, Robert C., and M. J. Blackman. 1999. “Hellenistic Production of Terracotta Roof Tiles among the Ce-ramic Industries at Gordion,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (3): 307-326.

Henrickson, Robert. 1995. “Hittite Pottery and Potters: The View from Late Bronze Age Gordion” The Biblical Archaeologist 58 (2): 82-90.

Jackson, Peter. 2002. “Light from Distant Asterisks: Towards a Description of the Indo-European Religious Heritage.” Numen 49 (1) 61-102.

Larson, Jennifer. 2007. Ancient Greek Cults: A Guide. New York and London: Routledge.

Marsh, Ben. 1999. “Alluvial Burial of Gordion, an Iron-Age City in Anatolia.” Journal of Field Archaeology 26 (2): 163-175.

Miller, Naomi F., Melinda A. Zeder, Susan R. Arter. 2009. “From Food and Fuel to Farms and Flocks: The Integra-tion of Plant and Animal Remains in the Study of the Agropastoral Economy at Gordion, Turkey.” Current Anthro-pology 50 (6): 915-924.

Özkayad, Vecihi. 1997. “The Shaft Monuments and the ‘Taurobolium’ among the Phrygians.” Anatolian Studies 47: 89-103
Prag, A. 1989. “Reconstructing King Midas: A First Report.” Anatolian Studies 39: 159-165.

Roscoe, Will. 1996. “Priests of the Goddess: Gender Transgression in Ancient Religion.” History of Religions 35 (3): 195-230.

Roller, Lynn E. 1987. “Hellenistic Epigraphic Texts from Gordion,” Anatolian Studies 37: 103-33.

——–. 1994. “Attis on Greek Votive Monuments: Greek God or Phrygian?” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 63 (2): 245-262.

——–. 1991. “The Great Mother at Gordion: The Hellenization of an Anatolian Cult.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 111: 128-143.

——–. 1984. “Midas and the Gordian Knot.” Classical Antiquity 3: 256–271.

Sams, Kenneth. 1974. “Phrygian Painted Animals: Anatolian Orientalizing Art.” Anatolian Studies 24: 169-196.

University of Gent. 2006. “Pessinous Excavation Project.” http://www.archaeology.ugent.be/pessi… (accessed 21 November 2011).

University of Pennsylvania. 2010. “Digital Gordion.” http://sites.museum.upenn.edu/gordion… (accessed 19 November 2011).

Vermaseren, Maarten. 1977. Cybele and Attis: The Myth and the Cult. London: Thames and Hudson.

——–. 1991. “The Great Mother at Gordion: The Hellenization of an Anatolian Cult.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 111: 128-143.
Voigt, M. Mary. 2003. “Celts at Gordion: The Late Hellenistic Settlement,” Expedition 45:. 14-16.

Voigt, M. Mary, and Robert C. Henrickson. 2000. “Formation of the Phrygian State: The Early Iron Age at Gordi-on.” Anatolian Studies 50: 37-54.

Young, Rodney S. 1956. “The Campaign of 1955 at Gordion: Preliminary Report.” American Journal of Archaeology 60 (3): 249-266.

——–. 1963. “Gordion on the Royal Road.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 107 (4): 348-364.

——–. 1962. “The 1961 Campaign at Gordion.” American Journal of Archaeology 66 (2): 153-168.

——–. 1966. “The Gordion Campaign of 1965.” American Journal of Archaeology 70 (3): 267-278.

——–. 1968. “The Gordion Campaign of 1967.” American Journal of Archaeology 72 (3): 231-241.

——–. “Old Phrygian Inscriptions from Gordion: Toward a History of the Phrygian Alphabet.” Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 38 (2): 252-296.

Books

The second lecture of the week – probably the shortest one I’ve done so far – pertains to Aeschylus’ quasi-historical tragedy “The Persians” – here I try and put to rest the debate as to whether this play was meant to rub defeat in the Persians’ faces, or whether it was a warning to the rapidly expanding Athenian empire not to follow down the same path as their enemies…

Bibliography:

Aeschylus (Phillip Vellacott, trans.), Prometheus Bound, the Suppliants, Seven against Thebes, the Persians.  (Penguin Classics, 1984).

Craig, J. D. “The Interpretation of Aeschylus’ Persae.”  The Classical Review, Vol. 38, (1924): 98-101.

DeVries G. J. “Le Theme des Perses.” Mnemosyne, Vol. 13, (1947): 317-320.

Erkelenz, M.  “Inspecting the tragedy of empire: Shelley’s Hellas and Aeschylus’ Persians.” Philological Quarterly Vol. 76 (1997): 313-37.

Favorini, Attilio. “History, Collective Memory, and Aeschylus’ ‘The Persians.’”  Theatre Journal Vol. 55, (2003): 99-111.

Sheppard J. T. “Notes on Aeschylus Persae.” The Classical Review, Vol. 29, (1915): 33-35.

Winnington-Ingram, R.P. “Zeus in the Persae.”  The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 93 (1973): 210-219.

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