“Bitter Poison Mixed in with Sweet Words”: Psychoactive Substances and Offensive Operations in the Picatrix


Select Bibliography

Brown, Warren C. Violence in Medieval Europe. London: Routledge, 2010.

Dannaway, Frederick R. “Strange Fires, Weird Smokes and Psychoactive Combustibles: Entheogens and Incense in Ancient Traditions.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 42, 4, 2010: 485-497.

Levey, Martin. “Ibn al-Wahshiya’s “Book of Poisons,” Kitab al’Sumum: Studies in the History of Arabic Pharmacology II.” Journal of the History of Medicine, 1963: 370-377.

Levey, Martin. “Medieval Arabic Toxicology: The Book on Poisons of ibn Wahshīya and Its Relation to Early Indian and Greek Texts.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 56, 7, 1966: 1-130.

Meyerson, Mark D., Oren Falk, and Daniel Thiery. ‘A Great Effusion of Blood’?: Interpreting Medieval Violence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Müller, Jürgen Leo. “Love Potions and the Ointment of Witches: Historical Aspects of the Nightshade Alkaloids.” Clinical Toxicology 36, 6, 1998: 617-627.

Saffron, Morris H. “Review of “Medieval Arabic Toxicology: The Book on Poisons of ibn Waḥshīya and Its Relationto Early Indian and Greek Texts” by Martin Levey.” Speculum 43, 2, 1968: 360-362.

Saif, Liana. The Arabic Influences on Early Modern Occult Philosophy. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Saif, Liana. “From Ġāyat al-hakīm to Šams al-ma‘ārif: Ways of Knowing and Paths of Power in Medieval Islam.” Arabica 64 (2017): 297-345.

Throop, Susanna A., and Paul R. Hyams. Vengeance in the Middle Ages: Emotion, Religion and Feud. London: Routledge, 2016.

For Ibn Washiyya’s On Poisons, Extant MSS are found in five versions: Velīeddin 2542, Aya Sofya 3639, Šehit Alī 2073, Leiden 1284, and British Museum 1367. According to Levey, “Medieval Arab Toxicology,” 10, the best manuscripts were found to be the Velīeddin and Šehit Alī texts.



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